Inattentiveness manifests through failure to follow or focus on tasks and exhibiting disorganization American Psychiatric Association, Hyperactive behavior manifests as excessive motor activity such as fidgeting, talking, or the inability to sit still when inappropriate American Psychiatric Association, Excessive impulsivity refers to actions made without forethought that may risk safety as a way to gain a reward or the inability to delay personal gratification American Psychiatric Association, Impulsive behaviors may be perceived as socially intrusive and void of long term considerations American Psychiatric Association,
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This "modern" urban culture perceived that they were living in a new and different age.
They witnessed marvelous new inventions and experienced life in new ways. The population, now living in densely packed, industrialized cities, such as Milan and Paris, witnessed the development of the light bulb, radio, photography, moving-picture shows, the telegraph, the bicycle, the telephone, and the railroad system.
They experienced a faster pace of life and viewed human life as segmented, so they designated each of these phases of life with a new name. They created new concepts like "the Adolescent," "Kindergarten," "the Vacation," "camping in Nature," "the 5-minute segment," and "Travel for the sake of pleasure" as a leisure class to describe these new ways of life.
Likewise, the abstract concept of "the Crowd" grew as a new phenomenon simultaneously in Paris, France, and Milan, the largest city in the Kingdom of Italy.
Legal reformers motivated by Darwin 's evolutionary theory, particularly in the Kingdom of Italy, argued that the social and legal systems of Europe had been founded on antiquated notions of natural reason, or Christian morality, and ignored the irrevocable biology laws of human nature.
Their goal was to bring social laws into harmony with biological laws. In pursuit of this goal, they developed the social science of criminal anthropology, which is tasked with the mission of changing the emphasis from one of the study of legal procedures to one of studying the criminal.
The book, published in English in under the title "Criminal Man," solidified the links between social evolutionary theories and the fear of crowds with its concept of the "born" criminal as the savage in the midst of civilized society.
The book influenced both European and American legal experts interested in assigning responsibility to individuals performing dubious behavior while engaged within a crowd.
The first debate in crowd psychology began in Rome at the first International Congress of Criminal Anthropology on 16 November The meeting was dominated by Cesare Lombroso and his fellow Italians who emphasized the biological determinates.
Ferri expressed his view of crime as degeneration more profound than insanity, for in most insane persons the primitive moral sense has survived the wreck of their intelligence. Along similar lines were the remarks of Benedickt, Sergi and Marro. Anguilli called attention to the importance of the influence of the social environment upon crime.
Professor Alexandre Lacassagne thought that the atavistic and degenerative theories as held by the Italian school were exaggerations and false interpretations of the facts, and that the important factor was the social environment. A radical divergence in the views between the Italian and the French schools was reflected in the proceedings.
The anomalies observed by Lombroso were met with in honest men as well as criminals, Manouvrier claimed, and there is no physical difference between them. Pugliese found the cause of crime in the failure of the criminal to adapt himself to his social surroundings, and Benedikt, with whom Tarde agreed, held that physical defects were not marks of the criminal qua criminal.
Sighele, ; Tarde,  Literature on crowds and crowd behavior appeared as early aswith the publication of Charles Mackay 's book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. In particular Taine's work helped to change the opinions of his contemporaries on the actions taken by the crowds during the Revolution.
Many Europeans held him in great esteem. While it is difficult to directly link his works to crowd behavior, it may be said that his thoughts stimulated further study of crowd behavior.
However, it was not until the latter half of the 19th century that scientific interest in the field gained momentum. French physician and anthropologist Gustave Le Bon became its most-influential theorist. Two recent scholars, Momboisse  and Berlonghi  focused upon purpose of existence to differentiate among crowds.
Momboisse developed a system of four types: Berlonghi classified crowds as spectator, demonstrator, or escaping, to correlate to the purpose for gathering.
Another approach to classifying crowds is sociologist Herbert Blumer's system of emotional intensity. He distinguishes four types of crowds: His system is dynamic in nature. That is, a crowd changes its level of emotional intensity over time, and therefore, can be classed in any one of the four types.
Generally, researchers in crowd psychology have focused on the negative aspects of crowds,  but not all crowds are volatile or negative in nature. For example, in the beginning of the socialist movement crowds were asked to put on their Sunday dress and march silently down the street.
A more-modern example involves the sit-ins during the Civil Rights Movement. Crowds can reflect and challenge the held ideologies of their sociocultural environment. They can also serve integrative social functions, creating temporary communities. Active crowds can be further divided into aggressive, escapist, acquisitive, or expressive mobs.
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