Print Overview A personality disorder is a type of mental disorder in which you have a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving. A person with a personality disorder has trouble perceiving and relating to situations and people. This causes significant problems and limitations in relationships, social activities, work and school. In some cases, you may not realize that you have a personality disorder because your way of thinking and behaving seems natural to you.
While bulimics may have low levels of serotonin, other studies indicate that anorexics have high levels of neurotransmitters in some areas of the brain.
For example, researchers in London found that anorexics have an overproduction of serotonin, which can cause a continual state of acute stress and anxiety. Reducing their intake of calories to starvation level, which in turn leads to decreased levels of serotonin in the brain, may result in a sense of calmness.
The exact relationship between serotonin and anorexia has yet to be clarified, however. Researchers are still puzzled as to why, if anorexics already have high levels of serotonin, then SSRIs medications like Prozac which raise serotonin levels are successful treatments for some individuals.
These scientists speculate that that there may be different subtypes of this disease, and that different groups of anorexics may have different neurochemical characteristics.
Researchers have also noted that abnormal eating behaviors and the resulting changes in the body can actually cause a disruption in serotonin levels, thus contributing to an already existing problem. Studies also suggest that there are genetic predispositions to serotonin disruptions that appear to run in some families.
New research suggests that women who develop anorexia nervosa may have altered levels of dopamine in their brains. Dopamine disturbances can cause hyperactivity, repetition of behavior such as food restrictionand anhedonia a decreased sense of pleasure.
This neurotransmitter also affects reward-motivated behavior. Improper levels of dopamine may explain why anorexics feel intensely driven to lose weight yet feel little pleasure in shedding pounds. Numerous other hormones in the brain have also been linked to eating disorders.
Stress triggers the production and release of a hormone called cortisol; chronically elevated cortisol levels have been observed in patients with both anorexia and bulimia. Cortisol is very important in preparing multiple body systems to deal with threat including the heart, lungs, circulation, metabolism, immune systems, and skin.
Cortisol also inhibits the release of a powerful appetite stimulant in other words, increased cortisol results in decreased appetite.
This process may serve as a link between stressful conditions and the later development of eating disorders, although some imaging studies indicate that stress-hormone related changes occur after the disorders have developed.
It is currently unclear whether changes in stress hormones are a cause or a result of eating disorders. This hormone travels to the brain, where it tells the body how much energy is available.
This information plays a part in the regulation of reproduction, appetite, metabolism, and bone formation. If individuals with eating disorders lose extreme amounts of body fat, leptin levels drop a condition called "hypoleptinaemia".
Interestingly, leptin levels do not immediately return to normal when someone receives treatment for an eating disorder.Causes. Personality is the combination of thoughts, emotions and behaviors that makes you unique. It's the way you view, understand and relate to the outside world, as well as how you see yourself.
Part 1: Understanding an eating disorder An Overview. What follows are a number of the mainstream technicalities that need introduction in order for you, as a patient, to be able to communicate with health care practitioners dedicated to diagnosing and treating eating disorders.
The advancement in study of Internet Addiction Disorder has been negatively impacted by the lack of standardization in this area. It has been generally accepted among researchers, however, that Internet Addiction is only a subset of technology addiction in general.
Mood Disorder Overview Everyday life is a roller coaster of emotions. You may feel on top of the world one day because of a high-profile promotion or an awesome grade on a test. Another day, you may feel down in the dumps due to relationship problems, financial troubles, or because you got a flat tire [ ].
INTRAPSYCHIC FACTORS. There are a number of traits and characteristics that make individuals more vulnerable to developing an eating disorder.
The estimated lifetime prevalence of PTSD among adult Americans is percent, with women ( percent) twice as likely as men (5 percent) to have PTSD.